Table of Contents
The Binding URL syntax is the only addressing syntax supported by the Qpid JMS client for AMQP 0-8, 0-9 and 0-9-1. It allows to specify the bindings that define the relationship between a queue and an exchange, queue and exchange creation arguments and client behaviour.
The format for a Binding URL is provided below
<Exchange Class>://<Exchange Name>/[<Destination>]/[<Queue>][?<option>='<value>'[&<option>='<value>']]
Exchange Class, specifies the type of the exchange, for example, direct,topic,fanout, etc.
Exchange Name, specifies the name of the exchange, for example, amq.direct,amq.topic, etc.
Destination, is an optional part of Binding URL. It can be used to specify a routing key with the non direct exchanges if an option routingkey is not specified. If both Destination and option routingkey are specified, then option routingkey has precedence.
Queue, is an optional part of Binding URL to specify a queue name for JMS queue destination. It is ignored in JMS topic destinations. Queue names may consist of any mixture of digits, letters, and underscores
Options, key-value pairs separated by '=' character specifying queue and exchange creation arguments, routing key, client behaviour, etc.
Take care with the quoting surrounding option values. Each option value must be surrounded with single quotes (').
The following Binding URL options are currently defined:
Table 8.1. Binding URL options
Queue durability flag. If it is set to true, a durable queue is requested to create. The durable queue should be stored on the Broker and remained there after Broker restarts until it is explicitly deleted. This option has no meaning for JMS topic destinations, as by nature a topic destination only exists when a subscriber is connected. If durability is required for topic destinations, the durable subscription should be created.
Queue exclusivity flag. The client cannot use a queue that was declared as exclusive by another still-open connection.
Queue auto-deletion flag. If it is set to true on queue creation, the queue is deleted if there are no remaining subscribers.
Exchange auto-deletion flag.
Exchange durability flag. If it is set to true when creating a new exchange, the exchange will be marked as durable. Durable exchanges should remain active after Broker restarts. Non-durable exchanges are deleted on following Broker restart.
Defines the value of the binding key to bind a queue to the exchange. It is always required to specify for JMS topic destinations. If routing key option is not set in Binding URL and direct exchange class is specified, the queue name is used as a routing key. MessagePublisher uses routing key to publish messages onto exchange.
If set to true on a destination for a message consumer, such consumer can only read messages on the queue but cannot consume them. The consumer behaves like a queue browser in this case.
Defines the reject behaviour for the re-delivered messages. If set to 'SERVER' the client delegates the requeue/DLQ decision to the server. If this option is not specified, the messages won't be moved to the DLQ (or dropped) when delivery count exceeds the maximum.
The Qpid client Binding URLs for JMS queue destinations can be declared using direct exchange (Mostly it is a pre-defined exchange with a name "amq.direct". Also, custom direct exchanges can be used.):
The Binding URLs for destinations created with calls to Session.createQueue(String) can be expressed as
The durability flag is set to true in such destinations.
Example 8.1. Binding URL examples for JMS queues
direct://amq.direct//myNonDurableQueue direct://amq.direct//myDurableQueue?durable='true' direct://amq.direct//myAnotherQueue?durable='true'&routingkey='myqueue' direct://amq.direct//myQueue?durable='true'&routingkey='myqueue'&rejectbehaviour='server' direct://custom.direct//yetAnotherQueue
The Binding URLs for JMS queue destinations can be declared using topic exchange (A pre-defined exchange having name "amq.topic" is used mainly. However, custom topic exchanges can be used as well):
topic://amq.topic//<Queue name>?routingkey='<Topic Name>'&exclusive='true'&autodelete='true'
The Binding URLs for a topic destination created with calls to Session.createTopic("hello") is provided below:
Example 8.2. Binding URL examples for JMS topics
AMQP exchanges of class topic can route messages to the queues using special matches containing wildcard characters (a "#" matches one or more words, a "*" matches a single word). The routing keys words are separated with a "." delimiter to distinguish words for matching. Thus, if a consumer application specifies a routing key in the destination like "usa.#", it should receive all the messages matching to that routing key. For example, "usa.boston", "usa.new-york", etc.
The examples of the Binding URLs having routing keys with wildcards characters are provided below:
topic://amq.topic?routingkey='stocks.#' topic://amq.topic?routingkey='stocks.*.ibm' topic://amq.topic?routingkey='stocks.nyse.ibm'
Table 8.2. Binding URL examples
Binding URL binding queue "myQueue" to predefined "amq.fanout" exchange of class "fanout"
Binding URL binding queue "anotherQueue" to the exchange with name "custom.topic" of class "topic" using binding key "aq".
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